To accommodate several types of studies and case reports in conference abstracts we have drawn up the following guidelines.

Guidelines for LDO 2023 Conference Abstracts

Our standard ones for research will not be appropriate for all abstracts. We suggest that conference abstracts should generally be structured as shown below, be about 300 words, use SI units, and include no figures, tables, or references. Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined at first use.


Title of manuscript (Verdana 9, bold)


- Should be descriptive and include the type of study—eg, a cross-sectional survey, a randomised controlled trial


Names and affiliations of authors (Verdana 8.5, Italic)

- Provide full names and affiliations (name of organisation, city, state if applicable, and country) for all authors

- Provide full postal (including post or zip code) and email addresses and title for corresponding author


Main text (Verdana 8.5)

In the abstract include:


-Why the study was done


-Main results

-Outline the strengths of the study


Funding (Verdana 9, bold)

Source of funding (if none, say so)